Periodontal disease (also known as gum disease and periodontitis) is a progressive condition and the leading cause of tooth loss among adults worldwide. Periodontal disease occurs when toxins found on plaque begin to irritate or inflame the gingival (gum tissue). The resulting bacterial infection often known as gingivitis, may eventually lead to the destruction of gum tissue and underlying bone. If the periodontal disease is not treated, it can also lead to loose teeth or tooth loss. There are many common types of periodontal disease including aggressive, chronic periodontitis, narcotization, and periodontitis associated with systemic diseases.
Each of these types of periodontal disease has its own distinct characteristics and symptoms, and it all requires the prompt treatment of a dentist to stop subsequent bone loss and tissue.
Unexplained Bleeding: Bleeding when brushing, flossing or eating is one of the most common symptoms of a periodontal infection. The toxins in plaque cause a bacterial infection that makes the tissues prone to bleeding.
Pain, redness, or swelling: A periodontal infection may be present if the gums are swollen, red, or painful for any obvious reason. It is essential to stop the progression of the infection before the gum tissue, the jaw bone is affected. It is also critical to treat the infection before it is carried into the bloodstream to other areas of the body.
Long teeth: Periodontal disease can lead to gum recession. The toxins produced by the bacteria can destroy the tissue and support bones, making the teeth appear longer and the smile appears more “toothy.”
Bad Breath: Although bad breath can be sourced on the back of the tongue, from tobacco use, consumed food, and the stomach, bad breath can be caused by old food particles that settle between the teeth and below Of the gum line.
Loose teeth; Change in bite pattern: a sample of rapid progression periodontitis is the loosening or displacement of the teeth in the affected area. While the bone tissue is destroyed, the teeth that were once firmly attached to the jaw become loose or change position.
Pus: pus exuding between the teeth is a definitive sign that a periodontal infection is ongoing. Pus is a result of the body trying to fight bacterial infection.
Gingivitis: This first stage of the disease is an inflammation of the gums caused by the accumulation of plaque on the edge of the gingiva, which, when not removed by brushing and daily use of dental floss, produces toxins that irritate the Gingival tissue, causing gingivitis. Bleeding may occur during brushing, flossing or even spontaneously. At this early stage of the disease, the damage can be reversed, since the bone and connective tissue that holds the teeth in place have not yet been affected.
Periodontitis: At this stage, the bone and fibers that hold the teeth in place will suffer irreversible damage. A bag is formed under the edge of the gums, where food and plaque are trapped. Proper dental treatment and more careful home care will generally help prevent further damage.
Advanced Periodontitis: In this final stage of the disease, the fibers and bone that supports the teeth are destroyed, causing the teeth to move or loosen. The bite may be affected and, if not properly treated, the dentist may have to remove the teeth.
When a diagnosis has been made, the dentist can treat the bacterial infection with the antibiotics in conjunction with the non-surgical, surgical treatment or both.
In the case of moderate periodontal disease, the spaces (below the gingiva line) of the teeth will be totally cleared of the waste using a procedure called scaling and root planning. Spaces can be filled with antibiotics to promote good healing and to kill any bacteria that remain. Severe periodontitis can be treated in several different ways, for example:
Laser Treatment: This can be used to reduce the size of the spaces between the teeth and gums.
Tissue and bone graft: where a considerable amount of gum tissue or bone has been destroyed, the dentist may choose to graft the new tissue by inserting a membrane to stimulate tissue growth.
Space Removal Surgery: The dentist may choose to perform “fin surgery” to directly reduce the size of gum spaces.