Tooth loss can be caused by decay, gum disease and trauma (gum disease is the leading cause). When teeth are missing, those on the side and opponents tend to move into the free space causing all sorts of imbalances in the dental arches. Also reabsorption (disappearance by absorption by the organism) of the alveolar bone (spongy bone where the roots of the teeth are implanted). To restore the masticatory, aesthetic and phonetic functions, and minimize the effects referred to above, a dental prosthesis is made. The so-called false teeth are placed.
The dentures are teeth that are used to replace all the teeth lost for years. Prostheses generally replace missing teeth. Movable bridges or prostheses can be removed and replaced in the mouth, while implants replace the tooth permanently.
Complete dentures are placed when there is no longer any tooth in the mouth and all the support goes on the gum and bone. Nowadays, thanks to the new technologies and new materials, the aesthetic appearance that is achieved is much more correct.
The upper removable prosthesis is supported primarily by the “empty effect” that is generated between the dentures and the palate, while the attachment of the lower prostheses is much more complicated. The presence of the tongue, which always tends to lift the prosthesis, as well as the usual presence of small amounts of bone, often “dances” in the mouth.
These types of dentures are performed when the patient still retains some natural teeth. They are those prostheses that support, in addition to the bone and the gingiva, in the teeth that still remain in the mouth. They are called removable metal prostheses, removable skeletal or simply “skeletal” prostheses.
In principle, they offer greater stability than complete prostheses, although over time, the teeth on which they support the hooks of the prosthesis end up resenting. Also, it must be taken into account that any removable prosthesis causes a progressive loss of bone in the jaws, due to the pressure exerted by the support on them.
When there are no teeth, sometimes some types of conventional dentures give stability problems, especially when the bone support is not adequate. These stuck or move when eating, being the biggest problem in the lower prostheses, since the tongue and the muscles of the floor of the mouth move them more easily.
In these cases, there is the option of placing two or four implants and supporting the prosthesis over them to prevent it from moving. These types of prostheses are removable implants, also called overdentures.
There are different types of anchoring of these prostheses on implants: on a bar, on locators, but all of them will grant the patient stability much superior to other types of conventional dentures, with which their quality of life will improve ostensibly. As a counterpoint, we must point out that the price, when supported on implants, is much higher than that of the mucosoporate and dentosoported.